In my previous blog on Key Generation Methods, I talked about Key Generation Methods—if the initiating and responding device meet some IO capability conditions, they choose LE legacy Bluetooth pairing Passkey Entry method.
In this blog, I look at legacy pairing with Passkey Entry and how it works.
Figure 1: LE Legacy Pairing, Passkey Entry
Temporary Key (TK) and Random Number Generation
When you use LE legacy pairing, the pairing is performed by each device generating a Temporary Key (TK).
- If the IO capabilities of a device, either the initiating or responding device, has a display capability, then it will display a randomly generated passkey value between “000000” and “999999.” The other device should have an input capability like a keyboard so a user can input the value displayed for the TK
- If the IO capabilities of both the initiating and responding devices don’t have display capabilities but are both “Keyboard Only,” the user needs to guarantee that the TKs between the initiating and responding device are the same. This is a special case for Passkey Entry.
Below is a device named “Authentication” that wants to pair with an iOS device, and it displays TK on its output interface. The iOS device then pops up a dialog box and asks the user to input the TK value.
Picture 2: Passkey Entry on iOS Device
When the TK value is ready, the initiating and responding device generate a 128-bit random number: Mrand for the initiating device, Srand for the responding device.
Mconfirm and Sconfirm
Mconfirm and Sconfirm is 128-bit confirm value which can be calculated using the confirm value generation function c1. The detail for this function can be found here: Bluetooth Core Spec V4.2, Vol.3, Part H, Section 2.2.3.
For c1 function, the input parameters include:
- Mrand for Mconfirm; or Srand for Sconfirm calculation
- Pairing Request command
- Pairing Response command
- Initiating device address type
- Initiating device address
- Responding device address type
- Responding device address
When Mconfirm and Sconfirm are ready, the initiating device transmits Mconfirm to the responding device. When the responding device receives Mconfirm it transmits Sconfirm to the initiating device. When the initiating device receives Sconfirm it transmits Mrand to the responding device.
The responding device verifies the Mconfirm value by repeating the calculation the initiating device performed using the Mrand value received.
- If the responding device’s calculated Mconfirm value does not match the received Mconfirm value from the initiating device then the pairing process will be aborted and the responding device will send the Pairing Failed command with reason code “Confirm Value Failed.”
- If the responding device’s calculated Mconfirm value matches the received Mconfirm value from the initiating device, the responding device transmits Srand to the initiating device.
The initiating device verifies the received Sconfirm value by repeating the calculation the responding device performed using the Srand value received.
- If the initiating devices calculated Sconfirm value does not match the received Sconfirm value from the responding device then the pairing process will be aborted and the initiating device will send the Pairing Failed command with the reason code “Confirm Value Failed.”
- If the initiating device’s calculated Sconfirm value matches the received Sconfirm value from the responding device the initiating device then calculates Short Term Key (STK) and tells the Controller to enable encryption.
You generate the STK using the key generation function s1 detailed in the Bluetooth Core Spec V4.2, Vol.3, Part H, Section 2.2.4.
For s1 function, the input parameters include:
The paired devices establish an encrypted link with STK.
In Part 4, I introduce a new pairing algorithm in LE Secure Connection: Numeric Comparison.
Bluetooth 5: Go Faster, Go Further
Download this comprehensive overview to discover how Bluetooth 5 significantly increases the range, speed, and broadcast messaging capacity of Bluetooth applications, making use cases in smart home automation, enterprise, and industrial markets a reality.
Top 10 Auracast™ Resources
It’s been almost a year since the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) released Auracast™…
Bluetooth ESL – The Global Standard for the Electronic Shelf Label Market
Electronic shelf label (ESL) systems have historically relied on proprietary protocols for wireless communication,…
Best Practices for Using a Standalone Auracast™ Transmitter
The recently released Auracast™ Simple Transmitter Best Practices Guide describes a typical, qualified implementation…
Auracast™ Broadcast Audio Introduces New Opportunities for Product Developers & Public Locations
Bluetooth® technology recently introduced a new Bluetooth capability, Auracast™ broadcast audio, that will deliver life-changing…